Regarding road cycling I am not such a huge proponent of weight lifting for cycling performance, although I do believe it frequently is beneficial in the right quantities. It’s especially for MTB riders for example. I have recently gotten turned on to EDT (Escalating density training) which is usually associated with big strong guys but I think it is actually perfect for us “regular joes” as well. There is a good book on it, but here is a video explaining how it works. It’s great because it is safe and has a very simple, straightforward progression mechanism built in. It’s also fixed time which is a benefit to many people.
This books is really good if you like reading.
I have just started this after doing minimal weight training for a while. I will let you know how it goes. I know a fair amount about weight training and EDT really resonates with me.